Tag Archives: Hamtramck

Retrofitting Detroit: Filling in the blanks

This is the third in a series on retrofitting metro Detroit for urbanism. Also read the first and second.

Downtown Detroit: The urban heart of the region. Courtesy of ifmuth @ Flickr.

The mayor of Portland has defined a good urban neighborhood as one where everything you need for daily life is within a 20-minute walk or bike ride of home. You can get to your job, drop your kids off at school, pick up groceries, and go out for the night without going more than a couple transit stops away.

Most Metro Detroit neighborhoods fail this standard. We have dozens of suburbs where daily life can be conducted within a 20-minute drive of home, but we have very few neighborhoods that are walkable and well served by transit. However, that doesn’t mean we can’t in the future. We have many semi-walkable neighborhoods — both in Detroit and the inner ring suburbs — that could, if residents and political leaders so desired, be redeveloped more densely to provide the amenities they currently lack.

Most promisingly, there is greater downtown, including Corktown, Midtown, Eastern Market, and Lafayette Park. These historic neighborhoods have been redeveloping for more than a decade but thus far remain incomplete. If you’re near Wayne State, for example, it’s easy to get a drink with friends, but you may be at a loss if you need, say, a pair of socks, or new kitchen supplies. With the introduction of light rail and the continued influx of people, many of these gaps will be filled in coming years.

The most cohesive urban neighborhood in Metro Detroit: Hamtramck. Courtesy of MarkinDetroit @ Flickr.

Then there are Metro Detroit’s unglamorous, but authentically urban, immigrant enclaves. Vernor Avenue in Southwest Detroit is lined with all kinds of stores: bakeries, movie rentals, banks, auto repair. Ditto Joseph Campau, Conant, and Caniff in Hamtramck. If you need something, you can probably find it here in a small, ramshackle shop. While these areas are often starved for tax revenue, they are and will be an essential part of Metro Detroit’s urban future.

Less intuitively, there are former streetcar suburbs, like Ferndale, Royal Oak, and Birmingham. While these small suburbs are full of tidy single-family homes, they are anchored by growing downtowns that could grow outward and upward. Today their main streets are dominated by restaurants and boutiques, but with the addition of more (affordable) apartment buildings, offices, and basic stores, these could become fully functioning, mid-scale urban neighborhoods within larger suburban towns.

In fact, many experts predict most new walkable retrofits will be built in the suburbs, even in such anti-urban places as Southfield and Troy. In the video above, planner Ellen Dunham-Jones shows how dead malls are being repurposed as walkable communities and how auto-oriented streets are being remade to accommodate people in addition to cars. The results tend toward the generic, but these models offer a plausible path forward for aging suburban communities that have no downtown to speak of and wish to spark reinvestment.

Of course, saying Metro Detroit could have a thriving network of urban neighborhoods one day isn’t the same as making it happen. The process will no doubt be contentious and take years of individual and collective effort to change zoning laws and change minds. (See the years-long struggle in Ann Arbor to add density to 5th Street for a taste.) But I think it helps to start with a vision of where we could go as a region, if only we had the will.

Retrofitting Detroit: Stop the sprawl

This is the second in an ongoing series on retrofitting metro Detroit for urbanism. Read the first here.

1920s Suburbia - Dearborn, MI

Great cities have great neighborhoods. But not only has Metro Detroit long neglected its most walkable, urban neighborhoods, it has actively undermined them through sprawl.

Despite the fact that population growth has been flat for forty years (there are fewer people in Metro Detroit today than there were in 1970), we’ve kept building new subdivisions. Metro Detroit is now 50% larger than it was in 1970. Think of the madness of that. Despite the fact we could all comfortably live in a fraction of that space — in suburban, single-family homes no less — we’ve kept pushing ever outward, leaving behind the communities at the region’s center.

These are the communities with the greatest potential for urbanism. Places likes Detroit, Dearborn, Hamtramck, and Ferndale. While generally car dependent today, they are centered around small downtowns and have walkable street grids. With the right reinvestment, these communities could create an urban alternative for Metro Detroit — an area where more people live in apartment buildings and condos than single-family homes, an area where it’s easy to walk to the store or bike to work.

1950s Suburbia - Warren, MI

But the sprawl of the region actively undermines this future. The problem is not suburban living per se — even Detroit proper is dominated by single family homes. The problem is that suburbia is so dominant and so overbuilt. For forty years, there have been more homes than households in Metro Detroit. So every time a new subdivision is built — and new ones are built all the time — older blocks of homes in less desirable areas lose value. They can’t compete with the lower taxes and bigger homes of the exurbs, and developers aren’t interested in reinvestment because it’s cheaper to build new. So these older blocks end up blighted or even abandoned.

Historically, most of the damage has been in Detroit. The Detroit Parcel Survey found that a third of all residential land in Detroit is now vacant — a figure that never ceases to astonish. But the blight is also visible in the ‘burbs. Older suburbs like Hazel Park and the southern end of Warren have long struggled to maintain their retail and commercial corridors. Dying malls and empty factories are becoming common sights. Post-housing bubble, they are struggling to keep houses occupied, too.

For the cycle to ever end, and for urban redevelopment to have a fighting chance, we need to curb regional sprawl. It’s the necessary counterpart to “rightsizing.” Consolidation of the urban core must be matched by growth controls at the edge. If it’s not — if we simultaneously build our urban corridors up and our suburban edge outward without population growth — we’ll only further squeeze the areas in the middle, letting more historic communities slip into needless decline. And the damage will increasingly be felt not in Detroit but in the older suburbs that most closely surround it.

2000s Suburbia: Macomb Township

Retrofitting Metro Detroit for urbanism

When friends come back from trips to Chicago, they often lament that Detroit is not a “real city.” As quick as I am to protest — we have great parks, renowned museums, incredible architecture, huge festivals, immigrant enclaves, and more, don’t we? — I know exactly what they mean. Detroit may have all the components of a major city, but it lacks the connective tissue, the urban fabric, to tie it all together. Even Detroit’s most hyped urban neighborhoods are pockmarked with empty buildings, and the region’s growing suburban downtowns lack real diversity and remain isolated from each other.

In the next few posts, I’d like to explore what it would take to create a cohesive urban corridor in Metro Detroit out of the hodge podge of development we have today. Doing so, I think, will involve at least three major steps. I’ll explore each of these in turn in the next few weeks:

  1. Stop the sprawl. Metro Detroit’s population hasn’t risen in forty years, yet we keep subsidizing sprawl. It’s time to focus on redeveloping the city and retrofitting existing suburbs instead.
  2. Complete urban neighborhoods. Metro Detroit has the building blocks for urbanism, from Midtown to Hamtramck to suburban Main Streets like 9 Mile in Ferndale. We just need to develop them.
  3. Link them together with rapid transit. Starting with Woodward, rapid transit could bind Metro Detroit’s many hubs of urban activity together, forming a single urban corridor to anchor the region.

My hope is that this series of posts will spark a broader discussion about the future of Detroit. For too long, we’ve elected politicians without vision for the region. It’s time to start thinking seriously about what Detroit could become and what we need to do to get it there.